martes, 29 de marzo de 2016

domingo, 27 de marzo de 2016


In the UK, we all change our clocks and watches by one hour, twice a year. Last Sunday in March We add an hour and go onto what is called British Summer Time (BST). Last Sunday in October We put our clocks back one hour and adhere to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). At 1 am (01:00) GMT on the last Sunday in March we move our clocks forward by one hour for the start of British Summer Time. Summer time is from the last Sunday in March until the last Sunday in October. 

 Why do we change our clocks?
We've been changing our clocks forwards and backwards in the UK since 1916. It's all to do with saving the hours of daylight, and was started by a man called William Willett, a London builder, who lived in Petts Wood in Kent (near our school). William Willett first proposed the idea of British Summer Time in 1907 in a pamphlet entitled 'The Waste of Daylight'. Willett had noticed that the summer mornings light was wasted while people slept, and that the time would be better utilised in the afternoon by putting the clocks forward. After campaigning for years the British Government finally adopted the system a year after Willett's 

 When do other countries change their clocks? 
 European Union - Most countries change their clocks on the last Sundays of March and October. North America and most of Canada on the second Sunday in March and the first Sunday in November. Egypt, Namibia and Tunisia are the only African countries who observe daylight saving. New Zealand and parts of Australia are the only countries in Oceania that currently put their clocks forwards and backward.



Created in 1961 by the International Theatre Institute (ITI), World Theatre Day is celebrated annually on March 27 by ITI Centers and the international theatre community. Various national and international theatre events are organized to mark this occasion, such as the creation and circulation of the World Theatre Day International Message through which, at the invitation of ITI, a figure of world stature shares his or her reflections on the theme of Theatre and a Culture of Peace. The author of this year's International Message will be actor John Malkovich.

Message of the 50th anniversary of World Theatre Day
"I'm honored to have been asked by the International Theatre Institute ITI at UNESCO to give this greeting commemorating the 50th anniversary of World Theatre Day. I will address my brief remarks to my fellow theatre workers, peers and comrades.
May your work be compelling and original. May it be profound, touching, contemplative, and unique. May it help us to reflect on the question of what it means to be human, and may that reflection be blessed with heart, sincerity, candor, and grace. May you overcome adversity, censorship, poverty and nihilism, as many of you will most certainly be obliged to do. May you be blessed with the talent and rigor to teach us about the beating of the human heart in all its complexity, and the humility and curiosity to make it your life's work. And may the best of you - for it will only be the best of you, and even then only in the rarest and briefest moments - succeed in framing that most basic of questions, "how do we live?" Godspeed."
- John Malkovich


Easter Sunday is the Sunday following the Paschal Full Moon (PFM) date for the year.   (Paschal is pronounced "PAS-KUL", not "pas-chal").  
In June 325 A.D. astronomers approximated astronomical full moon dates for the Christian church, calling them Ecclesiastical Full Moon (EFM) dates.  
  •  From 326 A.D. the PFM date has always been the EFM date after March 20 (which was the equinox date in 325 A.D.)
  •  From 1583, each PFM date differs from an Astronomical Full Moon (AFM) date usually by no more than 1 date, and never by more than 3 dates.   (Each AFM is a two-dates event due to world time zones.   Each PFM is a one-date event world-wide).

Easter Sunday is the date of the annual celebration of Christ's resurrection.   The aim of the Easter Dating Method is to maintain, for each Easter Sunday, the same season of the year and the same relationship to the preceding astronomical full moon that occurred at the time of his resurrection in 30 A.D.

This was achieved in 1583 .D. using skill and common-sense by Pope Gregory the 13th, and his astronomers and mathematicians, predominantly Lilius and Clavius, by introducing their new larger (revised) PFM Gregorian dates table.   This replaced the (original) 326 A.D. "19 PFM dates" table in the Julian calendar.

Easter Sunday, from 326 A.D., is always one of the 35 dates March 22 to April 25.
From 31 A.D. to 325 A.D. Easter Day was celebrated either:
                               (a) on or just after the first day of the Jewish Passover (no matter on which day of the week that Easter Day occurred), or
                                 (b) on a Sunday close to or on the first Passover Day.
Both of these methods existed continuously throughout this period.

From 326 A.D. to 1582 A.D. Easter Sunday date was based on the Julian calendar in use at that time.   It became defined as the Sunday following the Paschal Full Moon date for the year, using a simple "19 PFM dates" table.   
The Julian calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar in October 1582 to re-align March 20 (and therefore Easter) with the seasons by removing 10 dates October 5 to 14, 1582.   This replacement did not occur until later in many countries e.g. in September 1752 in England.  
The Gregorian calendar very closely maintains the alignment of seasons and calendar dates by having leap years in only 1 of every 4 century years, namely, those divisible exactly by 400.   One additional February 29 date will need to be removed in about 4140 A.D., therefore Easter calculations will need to use the changed Days of Week of PFM dates when the exact year for this removal is decided.
From 326 A.D., the Easter Sunday Date for any given year is NOT determined by the March Equinox date for that year.   March 20 (not March 21) is the most common Gregorian Equinox date from 1583 to 4099 A.D.

Historically, references to March 21 have caused mistakes in calculating Easter Sunday dates.   March 20 has become the important date in recent Easter dating methods.   Despite frequent references to March 21, this date has no special significance to any recent Easter dating methods. 




viernes, 25 de marzo de 2016


The brotherhood REAL HERMANDAD DE NUESTRO PADRE JESÚS DEL SANTO SEPULCRO AND NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA SOLEDAD is one of the oldest in Malaga and their house and museum is based close to the Cathedral and enterance to Alcazaba. In the Hall of Thrones there are two genuine “jewels”, of the Semana Santa (Easter) in Andalusia, such as the Throne of Nuestro Padre Jesús del Santo Sepulcro ( Our Father Jesus Christ of the Holy Sepulchre), designed by the artist from Málaga , Moreno Carbonero , and ensembled at the Father Granda's workshop in Madrid. The second remarkable throne of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad (Our Lady of the Solitude) was made at Manuel Seco's workshop in 1950.
The solemn passage of the brotherhood of the sepulchre, considered de facto as the official Brotherhood of the city; the darkness that announces the arrival of the Servite order, order not forming part of the grouping of guilds of Malaga, made his parade processional closing on good Friday. The passage of the throne of Servitas, the smallest of all the Holy week, the lights go off and becomes the silence. All those moments are the tradition of a city which turns on the streets to enjoy his imagery and nights. The end of the Holy week, takes place on Easter Sunday, with the procession called the resurrected by the malacitanos, which includes representations of all the brotherhoods and brotherhoods that make up the group.



Next to the Santuario de la Victoria, beginning in calle Amargura, there is a small rise topped with a sanctuary, which the people of Malaga call Mount Calvary. Every Friday during Lent, a Via Cruces is organised that leaves from the San Lázaro Church and re-enacts the fourteen Stations of the Cross. The reason that it leaves from San Lázaro is because the processional brotherhood of Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno de los Pasos en el Monte Calvario (today known by the name of its Virgin, María Santísima del Rocío ) has organised for many years now the Official Stations of the Cross procession in Malaga, with the first Station being precisely that of San Lázaro. Each participant in the Via Cruces carries fourteen stones, which symbolise fourteen sins. The stones are left at each Station, where the corresponding sin is read, symbolising the discharge of sins following repent. The Via Dolorosa finalises at the Sanctuary of the Calvary, headquarters of the processional Brotherhood that bears the same name.



Easter started as a  religious holiday in much of the world, and in some other places as a holiday  to honour certain pagan deities.
From this origin hundreds of years ago to its present day celebration, the holiday has been associated with a variety of  festivals and special events. 
For Christians, this is the most important  holiday of all, as it marks the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the grave.
For non-Christians, Easter represents a day to celebrate the coming of spring  in the northern hemisphere. As the holiday is relative depending on the days of  the calendar, Easter is held on different days over the years.


Good Friday is a public holiday in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. On Good Friday, Christians remember the day when Jesus was crucified on a cross.

Jesus was arrested and was tried, in a mock trial. He was handed over to the Roman soldiers to be beaten and flogged with whips. They also thrust a crown of long, sharp thorns upon his head. Jesus was forced to carry his own cross on the trek from the city to Skull Hill. He was so weak after being beaten that a man was pulled from the crowd and made to carry Jesus' cross up the hill. Jesus was nailed to the cross and two other criminals were crucified with him. Their crosses were placed on either side of him. A sign above Jesus read ” The King of the Jews”

Since the early  nineteenth century, Good Friday and Christmas Day were the only two days of  leisure which were almost universally granted to working people. Good  Friday  today is a public holiday in much of the UK. Many businesses are closed on  Good Friday.
Many churches throughout  the UK  hold a special service. This may be o'clock as that is about the time of day when Jesus died.
It is traditional  to eat warm 'hot cross buns' on Good Friday. Hot Cross Buns with their combination of spicy, sweet and fruity flavours have long been an Easter tradition. The pastry cross  on top of the buns symbolises and reminds Christians of the cross that Jesus  was killed on. It is also traditional to  eat fish on Good Friday instead of meat.



Riogordo villagers unite for annual Passion play. Anyone looking for an Easter tradition that is slightly different to the procession may be interested in going to Riogordo to watch the famous "El Paso" passion play the life and death of Christ reenacted in a stunning open air spectacle.




The day when the glorious Passion of Jesus Christ is celebrated together with his victorious death. Here, the Cross of God is considered the symbol of salvation. Jesus Christ is nailed to the cross between the thieves Dimas and Gestos; after many years of waiting, he can finally fulfil his dreams of redeeming man. Today is the most important of all the days celebrated by the Church.

Silence is the main feature on this day of mourning and reflection of the Holy Week in Malaga. Fourteen tronos are paraded through the streets of Malaga as eight different societies carry their sacred images.

- Morning -
We suggest a visit to any of the churches with Eucharistic monuments in the old town centre.

- Afternoon/evening -
The large number of societies taking part today mean that an early start is advisable to avoid missing any of them. We suggest you watch the procession of El Descendimiento at around 17:30; you will be surprised at the beauty of La Coracha and its surroundings. An hour later, head for Plaza de Arriola where the canticles sung by of the Hermanas de la Cruz to the society of Los Dolores de San Juan will take you back several centuries into the past. By 19:00, you should be at the cathedral to admire the solemnity of the "Via Crucis del Santísimo Cristo Mutilado". We suggest  watching in Puente de la Aurora  El Santo Traslado and La Virgen de la Soledad.

- Night -

You should not miss the procession of La Virgen de la Piedad along narrow Calle Ollerías, the entrance to the Cruz del Molinillo district, at around 21:30. And if you want to see an Easter procession combined with a rich architectural setting, witness the departure from the cathedral of La Hermandad del Monte Calvario and its progress along Calle de San Agustín at around 23:30. In nearby Calle Calderería you can watch El Cristo del Amor and La Virgen de la Caridad as they return to the Victoria district shortly after midnight. As Easter Saturday begins, we will see the majestic elegance of the Santo Sepulcro's cortège in Calle Larios, accompanied on its way by Chopin's funeral march, at around 01:00. All will be shrouded in darkness when, after dead Jesus, we follow La Virgen de Servitas along this same road until it returns to the church of San Felipe Neri, amidst the prayers of La Corona Dolorosa, at about 04:00.

The processions of this day are:
Dolores de San Juan, Descendimiento, Monte Calvario,Traslado, Amor, Piedad,Sepulcro, Servitas.


jueves, 24 de marzo de 2016


It was on this day that Jesus attended the Last Supper, where he created the Eucharist and washed the feet of his disciples to show that we must clean our hearts. Following the betrayal of Judas, Jesus Christ was arrested, judged before Pontius Pilate, and condemned.

The Thursday is without doubt the most popular day of the Holy Week Malaga in terms of attendance, which makes it difficult to get around and find spots that are not too crowded.

- Morning -
We suggest that you be at the Malaga port for 11:00 to witness the legionary troops as they arrive in Malaga; these soldiers lift El Cristo de la Buena Muerte onto its processional trono (12:00) and subsequently carry it to the society's procession. After midday, a visit to the temple-museum of the Esperanza society to take a closer look at the tronos of El Nazareno del Paso and La Virgen de la Esperanza on the biggest trono of the world (More than 5 tons of weight and carried by more than 260 members) is a must.

- Afternoon/evening -
We recommend that you head for Calle Carretería at 17:30 to see the departure of the Viñeros society and witness the ceremonial placing of the key in the hand of the Nazarene. Afterwards, at 18:30, make for the Alameda Principal to see the walking catherdrals that are the tronos of La Sagrada Cena and La Virgen de la Paz. At the nearby Puente de Tetuán you can admire the procession of the Congregación de Mena accompanied by the Legion and the Navy. Then, if you can manage to exit the Alameda Principal via a side street, go to Calle San Agustín to follow the sombre cortege of La Santa Cruz until it reaches Plaza de la Merced at around 21:00.

- Night -

After a visit to one of the restaurants in the town centre to sample the wide variety of tapas and dishes on offer, you can enjoy the visual feast provided by La Misericordia in front of the cathedral in Plaza del Obispo. Then, head for the Alameda Principal to witness a unique sight in Malaga's Easter week; the crossing of the processions of La Esperanza and Mena at around 23:50. Afterwards, go to La Tribuna de los Pobres to hear the people of Malaga pay compliments to La Virgen de la Amargura (Zamarrilla) as it returns to its home district. Stay at this spot to receive the blessing of the Nazareno del Paso and accompany La Virgen de la Esperanza on its return home across the carpet of rosemary that now covers the streets of Malaga. And if you still have sufficient strength, head for the church of San Juan to witness the moving departure of the Cristo de la Vera-Cruz on its way to the cathedral.

The processions of the day are:


The story goes that in the times of bandoleers, one of the bandits nicknamed “ El Zamarilla ” was particularly notorious. His misdeeds were many and such was his renown and so dangerous was his band that the bailiffs decided to form a posse and capture him at whatever price. After a number of skirmishes they managed to corner him but “ El Zamarilla ”, rapid and slippery as an eel due to his knowledge of the land, managed to escape, though with the patrol in hot pursuit. After galloping for many leagues with the bailiffs hot on his heels, the bandoleer reached a sanctuary chapel in search of a place to hide. As it happens the only place he could find was under the cape of a figure of a Virgin Dolorosa that was worshipped there. The bailiffs arrived and though the searched the whole chapel from one end to the other, none of them discovered “ El Zamarilla ” in his original hiding place. Desperate and furious they left to comb the area. A little later, feeling safe, the bandit left his refuge and in improvised thanks for having saved him, he broke off a white rose that grew by the side of the path and pinned it on the breast of the figure, using his own dagger to hold it.
 At this moment the rose turned scarlet. Terrified, the bandit knelt before the image of the Virgin, begging pardon for his wrongful life and from then on “ El Zamarilla ” became a hermit, coming down from the hills only to visit his beloved Virgin. On one of these occasions he himself was attacked by bandits and though “ El Zamarilla ” still had the vigour of his youth and he put up a fight, he was mortally wounded by one of them before they fled. With great difficulty he managed to reach the door of the sanctuary, carrying in his hand, as he always did, a red rose to offer the Virgin. Before he died his eyes turned towards the Virgin and then he saw that the rose he carried in his hands had turned white. She had pardoned him. Today, Our Lady Virgen de la Amargura continues in the sanctuary called Zamarrilla , She continues to wear a red rose held with a dagger, except on Good Friday when She wears a white rose, pardoning all Mankind for the death of her Son.


La Virgen de la Amargura (Zamarrilla) as it returns to its temple passing in front of La Esperanza Basilica.



The town of Benalmádena (Málaga) celebrates Holy Week with its traditional interpretation of “The Passion of Christ” (referred to as ‘El Paso’).
‘El Paso’ is a dramatic recreation of the last days in the life of Jesus Christ in which many of the town locals take to the stage to represent different biblical characters. This unique traditional dates back to the 1940’s and was repeated yearly until 2001.
For a few years – from 2002 to 2006 – these celebrations were put on hold. Thankfully, due to popular demand and petitions, the tradition was recovered in 2007. Now, every Maundy Thursday and Good Friday, the town locals take up their roles as actors in this impressive recreation. This year, 120 villagers will make up the cast of this beautiful spectacle, re-enacting their Holy Week through 36 different scenes.
Another highlight of this year’s play will be the 2 new temples which have been built for the occasion:La Oración (the Prayer) and El Concilio (The Council). Both will undoubtedly help to improve an already impressive staging.



One of the highlights in Malaga is Maundy Thursday, when hundreds of Spanish legionnaires arrive from Melilla, a Spanish enclave in north Africa to carry the wooden figure of Cristo de la Buena Muerte (Christ of the Good Death) in the visually stunning Procession of the Cross.

The Spanish Legión (Spanish: Legión Española, La Legión or colloquially El Tercio), formerly Spanish Foreign Legion, is an elite unit of the Spanish Army. Founded as the Tercio de Extranjeros ("Foreigners Regiment"), it was originally intended as a Spanish equivalent of the French Foreign Legion, but in practice it recruited almost exclusively Spaniards. The Spanish Legion's animal mascot is the Legión's goat.

Novio de la Muerte (Bridegroom of Death) is the official hymn and regimental slow march of the Spanish Legion, made in 1921 with words by Juan Costa set to music by Fidel Prado.

Bridegroom of Death

No one in that Tercio knew about
That Legionnaire who once lived
They didn't know about his life
and when he joined the Legion.
For all his life no one did ever
supported him more than the Legion
when a great sorrow came upon him
and like a wolf, hit his heart.

When anyone tried to ask all about him,
He would answer with agony and sadness:
"I'm a man whose luck had
with a beast's claw just struck on me,
I'm the bridgegroom of death
that have been worthy of having companions
with the strongest of bonds."

In the middle of battle, when
the firing is at its worst ever
the Legionnaire advances forward
defending his flag at all costs.
Before he's becoming victorious
while unafraid of the enemy's push
all of a sudden he died bravely
but his flag was somewhat saved.

In burning ground he utters sadly
as his blood on the soil's a-pouring:
"I'm a man whose luck had
with a beast's claw just struck on me,
I'm the bridgegroom of death
that have been worthy of having companions
with the strongest of bonds."

When he's been finally seen at last
they see in his chest shirt hanging
a letter small and a pretty woman's
small portrait attached.
The letter, as read, says these words:
"If I can reach you right now,
ask God for you to claim my place
so that to you I can later go."

After this, they for the last time hug him,
they bid his final farewell as well.
When I sought to be to you,
My dear companion loyal
Death's bridegroom I have become,
have tied her with the strongest bonds and
her love has become my flag!

miércoles, 23 de marzo de 2016


The procession of the Paloma (Dove) is uniquely and pleasurably marked with the release of hundreds of doves.



In a city with such a maritime tradition as Malaga, there had to be a legend linked to the fishermen. According to the story, a group of fishermen were at sea fishing off their boat when they were surprised by a sudden storm and, unfortunately, the waves swept them away from the coast. Despite all their efforts they were unable to control the boat and get back to land. Under menacing black clouds and in the midst of enormous waves they entrusted their souls to the Lord, sure that their end was near. However, following their prayers a ray of light lit the Heavens and the waters calmed in the middle of the waves, place in which the sculpture of a Christ Crucified appeared. The seamen immediately steered their boat towards the image, which they rescued from the sea and saw that blood was flowing the side. The storm finally blew itself out and they were able to return to land safe and sound and with the image of Christ Crucified, which was taken to the old Convent de la Merced, where it has been venerated since as the Cristo de la Sangre (Christ of Blood).



Today we reach the halfway stage of Holy Week with six societies parading their thirteen tronos. Grandeur and splendour are the words that best sum up each and every one of these processions of the Holy Week in Malaga.

- Morning -
We can start off by visiting the temples of the societies of La Paloma, in Plaza de San Francisco, and Sangre, which is nearby. Heading along Calle Carretería we come to the church of San Juan where we can look on as El Cristo de Animas de Ciegos is carried to its processional trono on the shoulders of paratroopers at 12:00. Finally, we must not forget to call in at the temple-museum of the Expiración society, which houses an art collection of great merit; this visit is an absolute must.

- Afternoon/evening -
Our afternoon begins at 16:30 in Plaza de Capuchinos with the departure of Los Salesianos. We shall then head for the church of Santo Domingo to see the Via Crucis of the Congregación de Mena on the streets of the Perchel district at around 18:00. At 19:00 we will cross the Puente de los Alemanes bridge and make for Plaza de Félix Sáenz to admire the dense cortege of the Cofradías Fusionadas. Before taking a rest, we recommend that you attend the traditional ceremony in which a prisoner is freed by the image of Jesús el Rico at 20:30 near Plaza de la Aduana, very close to the Alcazaba.

- Night -
After keeping our strength up by sampling 'pescaíto frito' (fried fish) and other culinary delights to be found in the old town centre's many bars, we shall head for the Alameda Principal at 21:30 to see the magnificent tronos paraded by the Paloma society, in which doves, the birds that give the society its name, are set free.
Then go to the end of Calle Carretería to witness the vibrant meeting of the tronos carried by the Sangre society at La Tribuna de los Pobres. Finally, we recommend that you try to find a seat in the Alameda Principal in order to enjoy the procession of La Expiración and appreciate both the components of its cortege and the immense artistry of its tronos. If you wish to see one of the tronos returned to its temple, we suggest you watch El Rico in Calle Cister at about 01:00.



It is said that in times of Charles III a serious epidemic of plague struck the city and a great many people died. Those who did survive where so weak that it was almost impossible for them to hold the processions to implore for the end of the epidemic. However, one of the places where the disease had struck with less virulence was the prison and the prisoners, knowing what was happening outside the walls that held them captive, asked the prison governor for permission carry in procession the image of Christ named Nuestro Padre Jesús "El Rico" . When the authorities refused, based on the well-founded fear that the prisoners would take advantage of the occasion to escape, these decided to rebel and fulfil their promise to carry out the procession as requested. When the procession had finished all of the prisoners returned as promised, except one, who came back the next day with a sculpture of the head of St. John the Baptist Beheaded, which he placed beside the bed of a cellmate, who was ill. The prisoner, just like the rest of the population of Malaga, recovered a few days later. The King, moved by the generous action of the prisoners issued a Decree by which, every year during the procession of Jesus el Rico, a prisoner would be set free. This tradition has been conserved to our days and HM King Juan Carlos I continues to sign the Pardon each year, the freed prisoner accompanying “El Rico” in its procession through the streets of the city, following a ceremony at Government Offices in which the Pardon is read and, more importantly, the prisoner receives the blessing of Our Father Jesus “El Rico” , for which purpose the sculpture’s right arm is articulated.


lunes, 21 de marzo de 2016


El Rocío returning to its temple.



Today, we can admire the work of the gardeners of the city's park in the shape of the mantle of natural flowers made for La Virgen de las Penas, which can be viewed at the church of San Julián in  Nosquera street.



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